The same 250 counties and major cities (with populations over 50,000) are shown, identically coloured on each image. 1981 census population is used to resize the areas with software written by the author on Archimedes and Amdahl computers.
Top left is the basemap, next to that is a continuous area population cartogram preserving the physical coastline. Notice how the mass of northern English conurbations are squeezed, like toothpaste, up through the neck of Scotland. The second cartogram follows a suggestion by Tobler (1987) where the marginal distributions, of in this case latitude and longitude, are equalized. Most cities are still too small, and the country too large, however. The final image is of a continuous area cartogram within the shape of the coastline deformed by the pseudo-cartogram. Here the length of internal boundaries is kept to a minimum.