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Daily commuting flows as a proportion of destination residents.

Lines drawn between 9,289 English and Welsh 1981 census wards on an equal population cartogram — software by author on an Archimedes computer. Flows are shown when approximately 0.6% of the employed population of an area travel-to-work to the same destination as a proportion of those living there.

When, what might be thought to be a more sophisticated measure of a flow’s significant is employed, an unusual picture can result. Here the denominator is made up of the resident populations of both origin and destination wards. A pattern of city centre influx dominates as a result, with London standing out rather obviously. Manchester also shows evidence of a very centralised workforce, as do places such as Hull and Southampton.