Daily commuting flows as a proportion of destination employees.

Lines drawn between 9,289 English and Welsh 1981 census wards on an equal population cartogram software by author on an Archimedes computer. Flows are shown when approximately 0.4% of the employed population of an area travel-to-work to the same destination as a proportion of those also working there.

When commuting flows are only seen as significant if they represent an unusual proportion of the daytime working population and night-time (sleeping) population we lose the pattern of towns, which mix many people from different areas to work in offices. Instead, we see the rural picture of work-flows and the flows to large factories of over one thousand people from a single estate as, for instance, to the Cowley car plant in Oxford.