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Daily commuting flows on an equal population projection in 1981.

Lines drawn between 9,289 English and Welsh 1981 census wards on an equal population cartogram software by author on an Archimedes computer. Flows are shown when more than 2% of the employed population of an area travel-to-work to the same destination.

Population space is seen to be nearly full of the flows of people, particularly dense inside London as the cartogram is based on night time population. The circular pattern of towns spun around the capital is distinctive, as are the watersheds between particular conurbations, the thin white bands around the West Midlands and Manchester, for instance. The rivers Avon, Thames and Humber can still be made out on this projection, through their effect on the flows.