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Dorling, D. (1991) The Visualization of Spatial Structure, PhD Thesis, Department of Geography, University of Newcastle upon Tyne

Index

A


Abstract Spaces    50
Aesthetics    60
Africa    75, 94
Age    6, 70, 72, 84, 92
Aggregation    40, 73, 89,145,158
Agricultural labours    78
Air travel    53
Airlines    135
Algorithm    41, 59, 61-62, 67, 174, 233-234
Alliance    259
Amalgamation    9, 32, 90, 118, 276
America    177
Animation    23, 25, 129, 156, 161, 164, 169
Arrows    90, 100, 108 116, 120, 145-147, 152
Art    176
Artificial life    173
Artificial realities    48-49, 170, 176
Asia    75, 94
Aspatial    36
Atlas    53
Australia    55

B


Bar charts    144, 147-148, 163
Barrier    32
Bars and Pyramids    142
Best fitting constituencies    238
Binocular    23
Bivariate    21
Black box techniques    172
Black-spots    77
Blurred    10
Boundaries    41, 58, 66, 68, 70, 72, 88-90, 100, 117, 156, 238, 291
Bridges    60
Britain    6, 10, 28, 30- 37, 46, 58, 60-61, 68-70, 72, 81, 84-85, 94, 96, 103, 107, 113-114, 119, 149, 158, 169, 178, 179, 292
Building societies    81, 97, 233, 275-276
By-elections    99

C


Camera    13, 128, 133, 161
Canada    55
Cancer Registry    233
Caribbean    75
Cartogram    6, 54-64, 82, 91, 100, 114-115, 158, 171, 174, 234
Cartography    1, 9, 15, 174
Catchments    109
Cave paintings    14
Celtic fringe    96, 158
Census    4, 9, 28, 44, 70, 89, 93, 107, 117, 285, 291
Census cartography    104
Census of employment    96
Census Office    233
Censuses    30
Change in flows    106
Charcoal stick    29
Chart    143
Chernoff    149-151
Childhood leukaemia    159, 169
Children    76, 92-93, 102
Chinese wall    50
Choropleth    8, 71
Circles, Pies and Rings    140
Circular cartogram    234
Cities    3, 37
City structure    114
Class    78, 84
Coastline    58, 61
Cobweb    27, 104-105
Cohort    46
Colour    8, 20-21, 24-26, 72, 74, 80, 82, 114, 122, 130, 138
Colour blind    24
Communication    13-14, 27
Communities    2, 34, 37, 46, 84
Commuting    34, 40, 108, 133-114, 137, 292
Comparing angles    141
Computer graphics    15, 170
Computer hardware    175
Computer intelligence    173
Conservative Party   82, 84, 99, 164, 259
Constituencies    38, 55,150
Constraints    58, 62, 84
Contact lenses    170
Contiguity    60-61 66, 112, 117
Contiguous cartogram    57, 59
Contour diagram    127,    130, 168
Conurbations    91
Convex hulls    127
County council    83
Crofters    77
Crowds of Faces    149, 152

D


Data archive    233, 259
Denominator    113
Dependant    76
Deprivation    45
Depth cues    127-128
Detail    58, 68
Deviation from expected    158
Dimensions    33, 146, 155
Direction    108, 113, 116, 132
Disability    84
Disease    56, 84, 153, 155, 159
Distance    65, 132-133, 136
Distortion    5, 48, 58, 134
District elections    83
Dithered    72, 90
Divisions   13, 37, 45, 72, 77, 81, 88, 137, 151, 178
Drape    8, 136
Dynamics    104

E


Economic spacetime    169
Education    107
Elderly    72, 76, 92
Elections    6, 55, 81, 83, 146-147, 259
Electoral graphs    169
Electoral system    99
Electoral tetrahedron    164
Electoral triangle    146, 151
Electorate    150
Employment    76, 95, 101, 147, 150, 158
England    32, 74
Enumeration districts    43-44, 70, 76
Envisioning    11
Epidemiology    56
Equations    12, 16, 28
Estates    84, 291
Estuary    60
Euclidean space   57, 6,1   132, 135, 162
Europe    32
Extrapolate    276
Eye    19, 21
Eye-mind system   22

F


Faces    27, 149, 151
Family practitioner areas    120, 166
Fishnet    128
Flatland    138, 172
Flocks of arrows    27, 145
Flow mapping    109
Flows    8, 35, 40, 103-104, 111-116, 120, 131
Flows of money    121
Flows through time    166
Focusing    19-20
Foremen    78
Forming the structure    88
Four dimensions    155
Fractal lands    176
Functional regions   39-40

G


Gender    36, 70-72, 92
General elections    30, 98, 146, 150, 155, 233
Generalization    22, 79, 90, 92, 144
Geographic information    4, 177
systems
Geology    80, 96, 101
Geometric mean    118, 275
Geometry    24, 132, 137, 153-154
Gestalt    56, 141
Ghettoes    84
Glasgow    63, 171, 238
Globe    2, 134, 171
Glyphs    140, 142-145, 147-149, 152
Goggles    170
Government    39, 81, 83
Graphics    3, 174, 178
Graphs    8, 15, 27, 124-125, 129, 144, 163
Greater Manchester    238
Green vote    82, 165
Grid mapping    42

H


Headwaters    109
Health    84
Height    130
Highland Scotland    94
Holidays    107
Holographic image    169
Home Counties    77, 97
Hospitals    107
House price slump    98
House prices    7, 97, 150, 147, 233, 275
Housewives    76
Housing    34, 81, 97, 102, 147, 149, 153
Human cartography    1
Human geography    1-2, 5-6, 9, 34, 62, 84, 86, 157, 292
Hyper-tetrahedron    165

I


Icons    14
Ill-health    85
Illusion    11, 24, 131, 155
Illustration    17-18, 25, 131
Image processing    177
Imagination    18, 48, 151
Immigration    74-76,    83-84
Income    85, 179
Industrial structure    131, 136, 145, 150, 171, 292
Industries    78, 80, 83, 85, 96-97, 108, 143, 147, 153, 285
Inequality    33, 42, 88, 157, 177, 179
Inflation    81, 97-98
Information    18, 26
Information overload    152
Injustice    177
Ink-jet    179
Inner cities    158
Insets on maps   55
Interactive graphics    24
Interactive visualization    25, 170
Ireland    74-75, 94
Isometric projection    127

J


Japanese    177
Jerusalem    53
Joblessness    77
Jobs    102

K


Kaleidoscopes    74, 176
Kingdoms    52
Knowledge    17, 173

L


Labour party   82-83, 99, 164, 259
Lace-work    45
Landscape painting    129
Leukaemia    162
Liberal party   82, 84, 99-100, 259
Liberal Democrats    82
Life chances    84
Life expectancies    84
Life lines    3, 9, 66, 162
Lifetime migrants    94
Lighting    128, 169
Linear cartogram    64-65
Liverpool    120, 158
Local elections    83, 233, 292
Local government district    285
Local government wards    291
Local voting    285
Localities    34, 42, 74
Logarithmic scales    125
London    32, 53, 62-63, 75, 77, 79, 94-97, 120, 135, 158, 238

M


Managers    78
Mandelbrot    124, 129
Maps    2-3, 10, 14, 27-28, 51-52, 77, 177, 179
Markets    81, 149
Matrices    106,    110, 132
Measures    72
Mecca    53
Medical scan    155
Medieval projections    54
Mercator    52
Metric    5, 133
Microcomputer    234
Migration    2, 7, 30, 34, 40, 74, 86, 93-94, 101, 103, 107, 116-117, 137, 147, 292
Migration streams    118, 131, 169
Models    27, 48
Modifiable areal unit    110
problem
Molecules    48
Motorways    63, 136
Mountains    3, 52
Multi-dimensional    138, 153, 163
Multi-dimensional scaling    134
Multivariate    139, 141-142, 153
Multivariate analysis    138

N


Nation states    157
National Health Service    107, 120, 166
central register
National Information    291
System
Nationalists    82, 164, 259
Neighbourhoods    33-34, 41, 46, 72, 84, 109
Neighbours    36
Net flows    117, 120
Network    115, 136, 165
Night time population    107
NOMIS    233
Norrland    179
Northern Ireland    32, 238
Nuffield Election Studies    259

O


Occupation    78, 79-80, 97
Oceans    53
Oil wells    50
One world projections   53
Open-minded    172
Opportunities   76, 84, 95
Origins    73
Other parties    259
Outliers    150
Owner occupied    148
Ownership    84, 85

P


P.C.A.    260
Parallax    128
Parallel architecture    234
Parliament    83
Parliamentary    99, 233, 238, 259
Constituencies
Part-postcode-sectors    285
Pascal    234
Patterns    4, 8, 19, 24, 73, 76, 87, 90
Peninsulas    61
Perspective    22, 24-25, 168
Perspective projection    127
Picture    3, 14, 28, 46, 90, 93
Pie charts    140
Places    30, 32, 34, 38, 45, 60, 62, 108, 136, 156
Polarization    103
Political landscape    99
Political power    179
Politics    101
Polygon    142
Poor    3, 38, 45
Population    7, 54, 89
Population cartogram    54-56, 58, 62, 71, 92, 113, 136, 162, 166, 285
Population pyramids    73, 143
Population space    5, 44, 62, 65, 162
Postcode sector table    285
Postcode sectors    43, 275
Poverty    77
Power    45, 84
Press association numbers    238
Printing    16, 25
Privilege    84
Producing illusions    60
Professionals    78-79
Projection pursuit    163
Projections    2, 52-53, 56, 131, 164
Propensity to move    113
Property    84
Prosperity    77, 169
Publishing    178
Pyramids    73, 144

Q


Quartiles    72

R


Race    84
Railway network    7, 60, 63
Ray-tracing    128-129
Redistributions of seats    89, 100, 238
Regions    37, 77
Religious    14, 52-53
Rendering    16
Residential    108
Resolution    19
Retina    22
Retired    76
Rhonda Valley    291
Rich    38, 85
Rivers    52
Road network    7, 60, 63
Rotating tetrahedron    171
Rotation    128, 130, 140

S


Satellite images    4
Scales    72
Scatter-plots    127
School    33-34, 107, 292
Science    176
Scotland    32, 63, 74, 164, 233, 291
Scottish local elections    83, 171, 233
Scottish wards    285
Sculptured Characters    138
Sea-slug    174
Sedgefield    238
Service sector    39, 80
Settlements    7, 33
Sexes    6, 92
Shares    84
Shopping    107, 292
Shortest path    117
Significant flow    110
Smoothing    79, 90
Social control    177
Social Democratic party    82
Social history    86
Social landscape    69, 71, 73, 78, 80, 83-85, 94-95, 101, 103
Social order    155
Social patterns    45
Social science    1, 7, 18, 106, 175
Social security    85
Social structure    1, 6-7, 11, 30-31, 34-35, 44, 67, 84, 104-105, 107, 119, 121, 158
Society    13, 27, 37
South East    66
Space    8-9, 30, 33, 35, 46, 49, 57, 86, 96, 156, 161-162
Space of Flows    118
Spacetime    9, 46, 63, 66, 95, 153-155, 157-158, 160, 167, 169
Spacetime cartogram    171
Spacetime continuum    46, 159
Spacetime flows    166
Spatial apparitions    36
Spatial congestion    151
Spatial scale    178
Spatial structure    13, 36
Speed of light    162
Spheres    160
Statistical analysis    15, 18, 68, 112, 172
Statistical graphics    1, 15, 125
Stereo vision    23, 163, 170
Still Images    87
Stockbrokers    77
Structure    68
Structure transformation    91
Students    76
Suburbs    33, 84
Surface    8, 122-125, 129, 132-133, 137, 161
Surface colour    130
Surface definition    124
Surface geometry    131
Surface value    136
Swings of votes   99-100, 145

T


Tactical voting    164
Technocratic control    177
Television    177
Temporal discontinuities    2, 64, 88
Territory    68
Tetrahedron    163-164, 171
Texture and colour    19
Thiessen polygons    59
Third dimension    154
Three-dimensional    23, 47, 66, 122-123, 127-130, 154-169
Three-dimensional net    165
Time    7, 9, 33, 46, 64, 86, 93, 96, 146, 154, 156, 161-162, 171
Time-slices    161
Topological relationships    57, 59, 234
Total electorate    259
Tower blocks    292
Transformation    5, 17, 48, 57-59 67, 87, 125
Translucence    168-169
Transparency    18, 128
Travel time    65, 136
Travel time surface    133, 135
Travel to work    107, 109, 113, 115
Tree symbols    12, 138, 141
Triangle inequality    132
Triangular graph    126
Trivariate    21, 131
Turnout    101, 150

U


Unemployment    76-77, 83, 95-96, 98, 106, 122, 131, 141-142, 157-159, 169, 285, 292
Unionists    82
United Kingdom    32
Units of space   89
Unskilled workers    78

V


Valleys    94
Variable employment    95
Vector fields    115
Venice    53
Vertical scale    123
Viewing society    68
Villages    2, 33, 37, 84, 291
Visual perception    173
Visual thinking    11
Visualization    5-6, 9, 15-18, 24-25, 48-49, 59, 67, 82, 86, 122, 124, 130-131, 136, 138, 151, 156, 168, 172, 175
Volume    8, 153
Volume cartogram    66, 162
Volume Rendering    168
Volume Visualization    154
Vortices    110
Voting    6, 30, 36, 83, 86-87, 98, 100, 102, 106, 126, 131, 147, 150-151, 153, 164

W


Wales    63, 74, 79, 291
Wards    43-44, 71, 97, 109, 112-114, 121, 158, 276, 292
Ward cartogram    233, 291
Wealth    3, 45, 85, 102, 121, 153, 179
Weather vane    142, 148
Welfare    84
Welsh    32, 74
Welsh valleys    77
West Midlands    75, 95, 238
Wire-frame    127-128
Work    36, 76-78, 84, 86, 292
Workplace    107
World    51-52, 54, 68, 179
World system    156

Y


Yellow    22
Young    73

Z


Zooming    19, 56